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Authored by: Dr. Dirk Frese, VP of Sales, Marketing & Service

Analytical instrumentation is a vast field with hundreds of techniques which are developing quickly for almost 200 years already as the need for safety and quality rises constantly in an ever-changing world.

The levels of sensitivity needed are doubling quickly and therefore the need for stability in the analytical method. Temperature, being one of the main physical characteristics, influences analytical techniques tremendously and thus precise temperature control is crucial for a successful method execution.

Personally, I have made use of most of the analytical methods mentioned below which are only a fraction of so many although important ones which are selected specifically for their needs in temperature control. Most experience I gained with chromatography, mass spectrometry, NMR, EPR, microplate readers and electron microscopy. All of them as fascinating, as one can only imagine.

There, and a myriad of other techniques, precision liquid temperature control with circulators plays a pivotal role in enhancing accuracy, reproducibility, and reliability. From liquid chromatography to laser photon analysis, from calorimeters to cryo electron microscopy, circulators with advanced temperature control capabilities ensure optimal performance and precise experimental conditions. In here, we delve into various applications of liquid temperature control with circulators in many analytical techniques, elucidating how they contribute to elevating precision in scientific analysis.

Understanding Liquid Temperature Control in Analytical Instrumentation

Liquid temperature control involves maintaining precise and uniform temperatures of liquid samples or mobile phases in analytical instruments such as chromatographs, spectrometers, and mass spectrometers. Whether analyzing complex mixtures, quantifying compounds, or elucidating molecular structures, controlling liquid temperatures is essential for optimizing instrument performance and obtaining accurate analytical results.

The Importance of Precision Liquid Temperature Control

In analytical instrumentation, precise liquid temperature control is crucial for several reasons.

Firstly, temperature variations can affect the behavior of analytes, leading to changes in retention times, spectral shifts, or ionization efficiencies. By maintaining constant liquid temperatures, variability can be minimized, and reproducibility ensured.

Secondly, temperature-sensitive analytical techniques, such as liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis, require precise temperature control to achieve optimal separation and resolution of analytes. Variation in liquid temperatures can alter the selectivity and efficiency of separation columns, impacting the accuracy and reliability of chromatographic data.

Thirdly, in mass spectrometry, liquid temperature control is essential for stabilizing ionization sources, such as electrospray ionization (ESI) or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). Fluctuations in liquid temperatures can affect ionization efficiency and ion signal intensities, leading to variability in mass spectrometric measurements.

Applications of Liquid Temperature Control in Analytical Techniques

Liquid temperature control finds widespread application across various analytical techniques, including:

Liquid Chromatography (LC): In LC systems, precise temperature control of mobile phases is critical for optimizing chromatographic separations. Temperature-controlled solvent reservoirs and columns ensure consistent elution profiles and reproducible retention times, enhancing the accuracy of quantitative and qualitative analyses. Here, water baths, such as the JULABO PURA range are mainly used to stabilize the temperature of the solvents.

Gas Chromatography (GC): In GC systems, precise temperature control of injector and detector temperatures is essential for achieving reproducible chromatographic peak shapes and retention times. Stable liquid temperatures in sample introduction systems ensure accurate vaporization and transfer of analytes onto the chromatographic column. A circulator recommended for this task is the JULABO DYNEO DD-449F. 

Mass Spectrometry (MS): In MS systems, temperature control is crucial for stabilizing ionization sources and enhancing ionization efficiency. Temperature-controlled liquid chromatography interfaces ensure consistent ionization conditions, improving the accuracy and sensitivity of mass spectrometric measurements. Probe cooling is another important task. A JULABO DYNEO or MAGIO MS-310F can do the job for you. For cooling an ICP-MS with a chiller, the JULABO FL2503 with 2.5kW of cooling capacity is a good option.

NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) spectroscopy, a powerful analytical technique for studying molecular structures and interactions, relies on precise liquid temperature control for optimal spectral resolution and accuracy. Circulators integrated into NMR spectrometers maintain stable and uniform temperatures of NMR sample probes or sample chambers, minimizing temperature-dependent shifts and line broadening effects. It also enhances signal-to-noise ratios and spectral quality. Various JULABO circulators are employed for sample preparation or to cool the apparatus itself.

EPR/ESR Spectroscopy: Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy or electron spin resonance (ESR) is detecting atoms and molecules containing unpaired electrons (paramagnetic). It is very sensitive (up to 1000x more than NMR) and specific and allows non-invasive or destructive analyses. It helps in the study of free radicals, structures and dynamics of processes. Applications can be found in medicine, pharmacology, food testing, material testing, dating of biological samples and many more. Today benchtop EPR spectrometers are most versatile for most analyses and its use will be on the rise even more in the near future. For this application liquid cooling by thermoelectric means is ideal. JULABO offers their Peltier TE400 circulator for this application.

Capillary Electrophoresis (CE): In CE systems, precise temperature control of electrolyte solutions is essential for optimizing separation efficiency and resolution. Stable liquid temperatures in capillary columns ensure reproducible electrophoretic mobilities of analytes, enabling accurate quantification and identification. In this application JULABO CORIO or DYNEO DD-200F units can be used.

Laser Photon Analysis: In laser photon analysis techniques such as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) or laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), precision liquid temperature control with circulators as the JULABO DYNEO DD-450F or PRESTO A85 ensures stable and controlled environments for laser interactions with samples. Consistent liquid temperatures mitigate thermal effects and background noise, enhancing the accuracy and sensitivity of laser photon analysis measurements.

Calorimeters, used for measuring heat changes in chemical reactions or biological processes, rely on precise temperature control for accurate calorimetric data. Circulators maintain constant liquid temperatures in calorimetric cells, enabling researchers to obtain precise heat flow measurements and determine enthalpy changes with high accuracy. JULABO circulators as the DYNEO DD-449F or CORIO CP-450F are appropriate for these tasks.

DSF Differential Scanning Fluorescence, a technique used for studying protein stability and ligand interactions, requires precise temperature control to monitor protein unfolding and fluorescence changes. Circulators with rapid temperature ramp rates and tight temperature tolerances facilitate precise control of liquid temperatures during DSF experiments, ensuring reliable analysis of protein thermodynamics. Recommended products are the JULABO CORIO, DYNEO or MAGIO circulators with a 450F cooling bath.

Melting point analyzers, used for determining the melting points of solid substances, require accurate temperature control to achieve reproducible melting point determinations. Circulators maintain uniform liquid temperatures in sample cells or melting point apparatus, enabling researchers to obtain precise melting point values and assess sample purity and identity. JULABO’s MAGIO MS-800F, compact chiller CF41 or Presto A85 can be a good match for these applications.

Thermal conductivity analyzers, employed for measuring thermal conductivity of materials, benefit from precise liquid temperature control to minimize temperature gradients and ensure accurate thermal conductivity measurements. Circulators provide stable temperatures in thermal conductivity cells, optimizing accuracy and precision. The JULABO CORIO CD-BC4, CF30 or DYNEO DD-310F can be utilized effectively, depending on the specifics of the set-up.

Thermogravimetric analyzers (TGA), utilized for studying weight changes in materials as a function of temperature, rely on precise temperature control to accurately characterize decomposition, oxidation, or phase transitions. Circulators maintain consistent temperatures in TGA sample cells, enabling precise measurement of weight loss or gain over temperature ranges. The DYNEO DD-450F up to the PRESTO W85 by JULABO are a good match depending on the temperature range desired.

X-ray diffractometers (XRD), used for analyzing crystal structures and phase identification of materials, require stable and controlled temperature environments for accurate diffraction patterns. Circulators ensure uniform liquid temperatures in XRD sample holders, minimizing thermal effects and enhancing the quality of XRD data. JULABO DYNEO DD-310F or MAGIO MS-800F thermostatic bathes are suitable for this application.

Microplate readers, employed for biochemical assays and cellular analyses, benefit from precise temperature control for kinetic measurements and fluorescence detection. Circulators integrated into microplate reader systems maintain constant liquid temperatures in microplates, enabling accurate and reproducible measurements of absorbance, fluorescence, or luminescence. Again, the JULABO MAGIO DD-310F or MAGIO MX-BC12 can be applied here.

Imaging microplates used in high-content screening and cellular imaging assays require precise temperature control to maintain cell viability and fluorescent probe stability during imaging experiments. Circulators with temperature-controlled stages or holders ensure stable liquid temperatures in imaging microplates, optimizing imaging quality and data reliability.

Electron microscopy techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), as well as cryo electron microscopy (Cryo EM), rely on precise liquid temperature control for sample preparation and imaging. Circulators maintain stable liquid temperatures during sample fixation, embedding, and imaging processes, ensuring high-resolution and artifact-free microscopy images. Water baths of the JULABO PURA range are used to temper samples and powerful chillers as the PRESTO A85 up to the PRESTO W92 can be used for deep temperature freezing.

In conclusion, precision liquid temperature control with circulators plays a pivotal role in advancing precision and reliability across diverse analytical techniques, from spectroscopy and calorimetry to microscopy and thermal analysis. By providing stable and uniform liquid temperatures, circulators contribute to minimizing experimental variability, optimizing analytical performance, and ensuring reproducibility in scientific analyses across various research and industry domains.

The specific circulators mentioned as recommendations are based on scientific publications and therefore just examples out of a wider range of possible instruments to be chosen from. 

If you have any questions or would like additional information, you can contact Mark Diener, Sr. Product Manager during his office hours Mondays and Fridays from 1-3pm ET, [email protected], 484-225-5404, or schedule a free consult

Authored by: Dr. Dirk Frese, VP of Sales, Marketing & Service

In the field of physical testing laboratories, where accuracy and reproducibility reign supreme, precise temperature control stands as a cornerstone. Achieving consistent and controlled temperatures is not just a convenience but a necessity for obtaining reliable and meaningful test results. In this article, we are looking into the role of circulators in physical testing labs and how they contribute to elevating precision in various testing procedures.

Understanding the Role of Circulators

Circulators are specialized temperature control devices designed to maintain precise and uniform temperatures in laboratory equipment such as baths, incubators, and reaction vessels. They can do so by heating or cooling a heat transfer fluid, e.g. deionized water, propylene glycol mixtures or silicone oils in a reservoir, the bath and potentially pump the tempered fluid to an external application by means of adequate centrifugal or gear pumps. Unlike traditional heating or cooling methods, circulators offer advanced temperature control capabilities, ensuring stability and accuracy in temperature-sensitive applications and better controlling and monitoring capabilities.

Melting point and viscosity test:

The Importance of Precision Temperature Control

In physical testing labs, where experiments often hinge on subtle variations and minute measurements, precise temperature control is key. Whether conducting viscosity measurements, tensile strength tests, or rheological studies, maintaining a constant and controlled temperature environment is essential for obtaining accurate and reproducible results. In more complex setups temperatures need to be ramped up or down quickly for rheology and viscometry tests and be oscillated for tensile strength testing, which circulators are perfectly designed for.

Comparing Circulators to Conventional Methods

While conventional methods of temperature control, such as heating mantles, may suffice for basic applications, they often fall short in terms of precision and stability as well as ease of control. Water baths as the ones from JULABO (SW22 or PURA range), are precise and stable, the heating power is smaller though than with circulators. Working temperatures are limited generally between ambient and 99°C. Circulators, on the other hand, excel in providing tight temperature tolerances, rapid temperature sweep rates, and uniform temperature distribution, thereby offering superior control over experimental conditions.

Optimizing Testing Procedures with Circulators

In physical testing labs, circulators find widespread use in a variety of applications. For instance, in rheological studies, precise temperature control is critical for characterizing the flow behavior of materials such as polymers and suspensions. JULABO’s versatile range of Corio®, Dyneo® and Magio® circulators is very suitable for that. In addition, circulators of the Peltier type without a compressor nor refrigerant is very often utilized for these tests. JULABO has the TE400 in its offering with 400W of cooling power at 20°C. Circulators ensure consistent temperatures during viscosity measurements, enabling researchers to accurately assess fluid behavior under different temperature conditions. Again, the above-mentioned circulators are the ideal temperature control instruments to be paired with advanced viscosimeters.

Copyright: Anton Paar

Similarly, in tensile testing of materials, maintaining a constant temperature is essential for evaluating mechanical properties such as strength and elasticity. Temperature dependency in these cases where circulators are used most are analyzed for polymers, adhesives, fibers in food as for meat replacement products, fibers in carbon fiber rods, liquid metal alloys, nickel titanium alloys for dental arches just to mention a few to illustrate the breadth of possible applications.

NiTi Arches

Into the same category of tests belong these of friability and hardness as well. Again, important in many research areas and in pharmaceutical formulation research.

Circulators integrated into testing equipment guarantee uniform temperatures across samples, eliminating temperature-induced variations and ensuring reliable test results.

Furthermore, in dissolution testing of pharmaceutical formulations, precise temperature control is essential for simulating physiological conditions and accurately assessing drug release rates. Circulators integrated into dissolution testing apparatuses maintain constant temperature conditions in dissolution vessels, ensuring reproducible results across different batches and formulations. See more in blogpost: Advancing Temperature Control in Pharmaceutical Formulation Research and Development: Insights into Sample Incubation, Dissolution and Stability Studies.

Tablet Hardness Testing:

Source: ischi


In conclusion, precise temperature control facilitated by circulators plays a pivotal role in enhancing the accuracy and reproducibility of experiments in physical testing labs. By providing stable and uniform temperature conditions, circulators contribute to the optimization of testing procedures, enabling researchers to obtain reliable data for scientific analysis and product development.

Authored by: Dr. Dirk Frese, VP of Sales, Marketing & Service

Reactor temperature control plays a pivotal role in numerous scientific and industrial processes, particularly in research and development (R&D), process development, and optimization. Precise temperature management is essential for achieving desired reaction kinetics, product yields, and process efficiency. In this blog post, we describe the significance of reactor temperature control in these areas and investigate strategies for optimizing this critical parameter.

The Importance of Reactor Temperature Control in R&D:

In the field of research and development, reactor temperature control is predominant for exploring new reactions, synthesizing novel compounds, and analyzing reaction mechanisms. Accurate temperature control enables researchers to manipulate reaction rates, selectivity, and product distributions, facilitating the discovery and optimization of chemical processes.

Moreover, in the field of catalysis and materials science, precise temperature control is essential for studying the thermodynamics and kinetics of reactions occurring on catalyst surfaces. Slightest variations in temperature can already significantly influence catalyst activity, selectivity, and stability, thereby impacting the development of efficient catalyst materials for various applications.

Example of a catalytic conversion yield influenced by temperature variations:

(Image source:

Process Development and Optimization:

In industrial settings, reactor temperature control is instrumental in process development and optimization. In pharmaceuticals, petrochemicals, or specialty chemicals, maintaining narrow temperature tolerances is crucial to ensure reproducibility, product quality, and yield consistency.

During process development, accurate temperature control allows engineers to identify optimal reaction conditions, such as temperature-pressure regimes, residence times, and heat transfer rates, leading to improved process efficiency and resource utilization. Moreover, precise temperature monitoring facilitates the detection of potential safety hazards, enabling interventions to prevent runaway reactions or thermal hazards.

Schematic diagram of a runaway reaction being controlled by heat removal:

(Image source: Wikipedia 2024;

Optimization of reactor temperature profiles is also central for enhancing energy efficiency and reducing environmental impact. By implementing advanced temperature control strategies, such as cascade control, model predictive control, and adaptive control algorithms, process engineers can minimize energy consumption, mitigate thermal losses, and optimize overall process performance.

Strategies for Enhancing Reactor Temperature Control:

Several strategies can be employed to enhance reactor temperature control in R&D, process development, and optimization:

Use of Advanced Temperature Sensors: Implementing high-precision temperature sensors, such as thermocouples, resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) like JULABO’s PT100 sensors available for many circulators, or infrared thermometers, enables accurate monitoring and feedback control of reactor temperatures.

Image showing a PT100 probe attached to a JULABO circulator:

The use of thermocouples of J, K and T types (ranges: -190°C-1200°C; -180°C-1350°C; -190°C-400°C), is sometimes favored over PT100s due to their smaller size. A converter box can be sourced from JULABO Thermocouple Converter Box (TCCB) to integrate them into the installation setup. Software packages like JULABO EasyTEMP® offer the ability to remotely control various JULABO circulators and display as well as analyze complex temperature profiles.

EasyTemp® Pro Screen and Package. Photo JULABO GmbH:

'EasyTemp Professional' control software 8901105

Adoption of PID Control Strategies: Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control algorithms offer robust and versatile temperature control capabilities, allowing for fine-tuning of temperature setpoints, response times, and stability, which can be achieved by employing JULABO circulators of the Magio® and Presto® range or the Forte heaters (HT30 and HT60) as well as cryo-compact circulators CF31 and CF41. All of which have a self-tune function optimizing the PID controls without the necessity for the operator to manually tune each one of the PID parameters.

Integration of Thermal Management Systems: Incorporating efficient heat transfer systems, such as jacketed reactors, heat exchangers, or circulation loops, facilitates precise temperature regulation and uniform heat distribution within the reactor vessel.

JULABO Presto® A80 connected to a jacketed glass reactor.

Utilization of Advanced Control Algorithms: Adaptive control, model predictive control (MPC), or fuzzy logic control, enhances the dynamic response and disturbance rejection capabilities of reactor temperature control systems. This is especially helpful in complex and nonlinear processes. JULABO circulators are employed in all of the above-mentioned control types by making use of their PIDs.


In conclusion, reactor temperature control is a critical parameter in R&D, process development, and optimization across various industries. Precise temperature control allows for exploring new reactions, developing efficient processes, and to optimize process efficiencies.

Authored by: Dr. Dirk Frese, VP of Sales, Marketing & Service

Temperature control equipment is crucial in distillation processes to efficiently heat and cool the apparatus, facilitating the separation of components based on their boiling points. For simple distillation, i.e. using a flask containing the liquid mixture of substances which must be miscible, condenser and receiving flask, the difference in boiling points must be at least 25 °C, if it is less than that fractional distillation has to be employed.

When heating the distillation flask, various devices are employed. A heating mantle, which snugly wraps around the flask, uniformly applies heat, ensuring consistent vaporization. Oil baths immerse the flask in a heated oil medium, providing gentler and more precise heating, particularly useful for sensitive reactions. Electric heating elements, often embedded in the apparatus, offer controlled and reliable heat sources.

For more elaborate techniques like separating from viscous mixtures with high boiling points vacuum distillation is used to treat the target molecules more gently and to speed up the process of vaporization. If the substances are sensitive to temperature over time, short path distillation techniques are used to keep the retention time in the vapor phase at higher temperatures as brief as possible. Especially for these distillation techniques recirculation heaters are useful in heating up a jacketed glass or stainless-steel vessel containing the mixture to be separated. This allows also for continuous feed of the mixture like for instance in a wiped film apparatus. Temperature control must be efficient and highly precise which heaters as the CORIO CP-BC4, DYNEO DD-BC12 or MAGIO MS-BC4 (up to 300 °C) allow or for higher temperature needs,  the heaters of the HT30 or HT60 types (up to 400 °C). These instruments equipped with temperature sensors like PT100s or thermocouples also can help monitoring and controlling the distillation process very closely.

For cooling, condensers play a central role which allow the vaporized substance of interest to liquify from the vapor phase back again and to be collected. These devices, commonly in the form of coiled tubes or columns, circulate cold water or other coolants to facilitate the condensation of the vapors. The choice of cooling equipment depends on the specific distillation setup and requirements. Recirculating chillers provide constant and precise cooling by circulating a coolant through the condenser. In some cases, cooling baths, which may contain ice or other coolants, are utilized, which do not allow for precise temperature control though.

As far as recirculation chillers are utilized, we recommend, depending on the capacity needed, defined by yield rates and speed of recovery, smaller chillers as the new thermoelectric Peltier cooler TE400 or compressor-based models as the FL601 up to the more powerful PRESTO A45. And here again the range of versatile recirculators like the MAGIO MS-1000F or other CORIO or DYNEO units have their place.

Advanced setups may employ thermoelectric cooling devices in addition for localized cooling, enhancing control over specific sections of the apparatus.

Temperature control systems by JULABO, including controllers and sensors like thermocouples or PT100 sensors, actively monitor and adjust the temperature. This data ensures that the heating and cooling elements operate within the desired range, optimizing separation efficiency. Automation systems further enhance the process, allowing for integrated control of various parameters, contributing to the overall effectiveness of the distillation apparatus. In essence, temperature control equipment is indispensable for achieving the desired separation outcomes in distillation processes by carefully regulating the heat applied during vaporization and the cooling employed for condensation.

January 25, 2024 – Allentown, Pa – Refrigerants are no stranger to headlines recently, largely in part to the Environmental Protection Agency’s call to phase down the production and consumption of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) in the coming years. While many refrigerated units are affected by this ruling, the newest member of the JULABO USA portfolio stands out.

Kicking off the new year, JULABO USA will be offering its first refrigerant-free chiller. The TE400 utilizes Peltier technology to provide efficient laboratory cooling with a range of -5 to 40 degrees Celsius and a cooling capacity of up to 400 watts. It is equipped with a pump capacity of 7 l/min with pressure to 17.4 psi. With a benchtop footprint, the TE400 is a small but mighty addition to any lab, best suited
for temperature control with circulation to an external application.

“I am extremely excited to welcome the TE400 to our 2024 product lineup,” said Dr. Dirk Frese, VP of Sales, Marketing & Service at JULABO USA. “A Peltier chiller is really like a refrigerator operating on a molecular level, so it makes sense for a temperature control company to lend our expertise to this space. To have access to this technology is a gamechanger, bringing energy efficiency to the lab with the same precision, stability, and reliability that our customers have come to know us for in the liquid temperature control industry.”

In addition to its environmentally friendly footprint, the TE400 is easy to operate and low maintenance. With fewer wearable components than a refrigerator, such as a compressor, the TE400 guarantees less downtime. With an additional operating mode labeled Silent Mode, applications with lower cooling requirements can run on a significantly reduced noise level for a more desirable work

The unit also comes NRTL marked for the United States and Canada, which has become a sought-after level of certification for many labs and startups alike. To learn more about the TE400 Peltier, visit


JULABO USA is the leader in highly dynamic and precise temperature control solutions for applications in science, research, laboratories, and industry. Products include refrigerated circulators, heated circulators, temperature control systems, recirculating chillers, water baths, flow-through coolers, viscometer baths, sous vide cooking solutions and various accessories.

JULABO offers 22 different standard FL recirculating chiller models. The units’ range in cooling power from 300W to 20kW in air and water-cooled versions. All models incorporate RS232 communication and alarm output ports. The standard FL chillers do not incorporate an integrated heater and have an upper set point limit of +40 °C with a fluid return upper limit of +80 °C.

Many applications that do not require sophisticated I/O, user interfaces or ±0.01 °C stability require chillers with a broader temperature range and higher upper temperature limit. To meet these requirements several FL chillers can be equipped with integrated heaters and higher temperature limits.

FL Chiller Nomenclature

Before we review the integrated heater options, let us explain the FL product name nomenclature.

Cooling capacity: the root number in the product name signifies the cooling capacity in Watts at 20 °C. If the name includes a W, that indicates a water-cooled unit.

FL1201 → root number of 1200= 1200W cooling power

FL2503 → root number of 2500 = 2500W cooling power

FLW7006 → root number of 7000 = 7400W* cooling power

And so on.

*Some water-cooled systems have higher cooling capacity than the analogous air-cooled models.

The last digit indicates the centrifugal pump pressure capability. FL models with integrated heaters have product names ending in 1, 3 or 6. This designates the pump power in bar: 1 bar | 14.5 PSI; 3 bar | 43.5 PSI; 6 bar | 87 PSI. Units with a 3 or 6 bar pump incorporate an integrated manual by-pass valve and an analog pressure gauge on the front of the unit.

FL Chillers with Integrated Heater

Small FL Chillers

Model Heater Power (kW) Upper limit (°C) Electrical
FL1201 1.3 +80 208-230V/60Hz
FL1701 1.3 +80 208-230V/60Hz
FL1203 1.3 +80 208-230V/60Hz
FL1703 1.3 +80 208-230V/60Hz


Mid-Size FL Chillers

Model Heater Power (kW) Upper limit (°C) Electrical
FL(W)2503 3 or 6 +80 or +95 208-230V/3PPE/60Hz
FL(W)4003 3 or 6 +80 or +95 208-230V/3PPE/60Hz
FL(W)2506 3 or 6 +80 or +95 208-230V/3PPE/60Hz
FL(W)4006 3 or 6 +80 or +95 208-230V/3PPE/60Hz


Large FL Chillers

Model Heater Power (kW) Upper limit (°C) Electrical
FL(W)7006 6, 9 or 12 +80 or +95 208-230V/3PPE/60Hz
FL(W)11006 6, 9 or 12 +80 or +95 208-230V/3PPE/60Hz
FL(W)20006 6 or 9 +80 or +95 208-230V/3PPE/60Hz

Conclusion & Next Steps

JULABO offers a wide range of FL chillers with integrated heating capability. The heater and upper limit options greatly expand the application scope of the FL product line. Contact us for help finding the appropriate FL chiller. You can also discuss your cooling application and any issues you may be having directly with our team. Mark Diener, our senior product manager, and application scientist, holds weekly office hours to answer your questions. Contact Mark for any questions you may have about your cooling application.

PID temperature control features a feedback loop system that regulates the temperature of systems and processes. PID stands for Proportional, Integral, and Derivative, the three components within the controller. It’s used in various laboratory and industrial temperature control units to regulate and maintain stable temperatures. PID controllers adjust to the process environment by gradually increasing or decreasing temperatures to reach and maintain the desired setpoint.

How the PID Components Work in Temperature Applications


The proportional component responds to the difference between the desired setpoint and the actual temperature.


The integral component calculates the accumulated error over time and produces an output to keep the process steady.


The derivative component prevents overshooting and undershooting setpoints by calculating the rate of change of any errors and allows the unit to react to external temperature disturbances. 

Together, the proportional, integral, and derivative components adjust output and maintain temperatures at the desired setpoint. 

Benefits of PID Temperature Control for Laboratory Applications

  • Accuracy: PID controllers provide accurate and stable control of processes, helping to minimize errors and maintain precise setpoints.
  • Efficiency:  PID controllers can help optimize energy consumption, reduce waste, and improve the overall efficiency of a system.
  • Responsiveness: a PID controller constantly adjusts the output power to maintain desired temperatures.

JULABO Units with PID Controllers 

Most of JULABO’s chillers, refrigerated circulators, and temperature control systems feature PID temperature control, including the CORIO, DYNEO, and MAGIO circulators, PRESTO temperature control systems, FL recirculating chillers, and Cryo-Compact refrigerated circulators.

If you have questions about how PID temperature control can enhance your application or need assistance finding the ideal temperature control product to maintain your setpoints, contact your JULABO account manager, they’ll be glad to assist you. 

Temperature control units (TCUs) rely on integrated pumps to circulate heat transfer fluids through a closed-loop pathway to an external application. Discover the differences between centrifugal pumps, positive displacement pumps, and turbine pumps and the pros and cons of each. 

TCUs use several pump designs; we’ll examine three primary pump classes and how each affects fluid flow. Maintaining efficient fluid flow through an application is vital to an efficient process. The required flow rates and pressure vary depending on the application variables. 

Centrifugal Pumps 

Centrifugal pumps incorporate an enclosed plate-mounted curved vane rotated by a motor. A low-pressure area draws fluid into the center of the pump as the vanes rotate. The liquid accelerates across the curved vanes and exits the pump outlet yielding a pressure/flow rate dependent upon the pump design and speed. Centrifugal pumps do not self-prime; therefore TCUs typically install them in the bath tank or in line with the TCU internal bath fluid. Centrifugal pump limits on fluid viscosity generally range from 0.1 to 200 cP. Centrifugal pump efficiency declines as viscosity increases. Centrifugal pumps provide a constant fluid flow rate at a particular pressure, do not require in-line bath fluid filtration, and can withstand deadheading without damage. Centrifugal pumps have an inverse relationship between pressure and flow, with maximum pressure at a low flow rate and the highest flow rate at minimum pressure.

Videos you might like to explore:

JULABO TCUs incorporate a variety of pressure and pressure/suction centrifugal pumps. JULABO USA includes the performance data for the pump on each product’s datasheet. Systems with a pressure/suction pump have lower flow/pressure capability on the suction side.

 Red line = pressure side

 Blue line = suction side

Positive Displacement Pumps

Positive displacement (PD) pumps function, as the name implies, by mechanically displacing fluid to provide flow/pressure. The pump components draw in a fluid and physically force it through the outlet. The design of the internal PD components can vary between gears, lobes, vanes, screws, or pistons. Given the mechanical nature of the pumping mechanism, PD pumps provide a steady flow rate at a set RPM across a range of pressure. In other words, a PD pump does not have a pressure/flow rate dependence like a centrifugal pump.

PD pumps cannot operate under closed valve or deadhead conditions as the pressure continues to build, resulting in potential burst tubing and/or damage to the PD pump.

Given the tight mechanical tolerances designed into a PD pump, they do not tolerate particulates. If necessary, based on the application, the installation of an in-line fluid filter alleviates this concern.

In the JULABO portfolio, larger PRESTO TCUs such as the W56x, W91x, and W92x (and variants) incorporate a PD gear pump. A gear pump consists of two gears, with the master gear driven by a motor.

Comparison of Centrifugal and Positive Displacement Pumps

Centrifugal and PD pumps comprise most pump styles installed in TCUs. Here is a comparison of the two:

Property Centrifugal Pump Positive Displacement Pump
Viscosity Range Excellent for low viscosity fluids. Efficiency decreases with increasing viscosity (max = 200 cP) Efficiency increases with increasing viscosity
Pressure Tolerance Flow rate changes with varying pressure Flow rate constant with varying pressure
Efficiency drops at high and low pressures Increased efficiency with higher pressure
Priming Required Self-priming
Flow (at constant pressure) Constant Pulsating


Turbine Pumps

Some manufacturers install turbine pumps in TCUs. Turbine pumps represent a hybrid having curve vanes (thus the turbine) like a centrifugal pump with the tight tolerances of a positive displacement pump. The pumping mechanism consists of multiple rows of small diameter vanes, increasing the fluid flow rate and pressure as it passes through the pump. Turbine pumps provide the high-pressure capability of a positive displacement pump with the flexible operation of a centrifugal pump. Due to the tight tolerances, turbine pumps do not tolerate particulates; thus a TCU will have an internal filter to protect the pump.

Comparison of centrifugal and turbine pumps:

Credit: Water Baths Blog


Pumps play a critical role in liquid temperature control applications. Applications vary considerably, making flow rate and fluid pressure an essential variable for successful liquid temperature control. The nuances and characteristics of pump options can be confusing. Don’t hesitate to contact our team to discuss your fluid pumping and liquid temperature control requirements. Our experts will ensure you get the appropriate TCU to optimize your application. 

So, you’re looking for equipment to help you heat or cool an application, and you’ve landed on a few product pages only to discover a whole lot of measurements, specifications, and other product information. How do you make sense of all these specifications and information? As a manufacturer of refrigerated circulators, heating circulators, and other laboratory equipment, we’re here to shed some light on the sometimes confusing world of temperature specifications. In this article, we’ll review the specs you need to pay attention to when choosing a laboratory circulator to heat or cool your application.

Why Specs Matter

Many laboratory applications require liquid temperature control units to heat or cool processes and samples. Your production, research, and development depend on these temperature applications. You need to know that the temperature control unit you select will be able to heat and cool your process to the set point and that the measurements will be accurate and reproducible. Undersizing a unit can lead to downtimes, inaccuracies, and even failures. The secret to whether a unit can power your application lies within the specifications and how to read them. So, let’s start with some basics.

The Basics

Temperature control units (TCUs) have a stated operating temperature range and a stated capacity. Let’s review these individually.

Operating Range

The operating range indicates the TCU’s temperature limits.  The stated operating range does not convey if the TCU has an integrated heater, refrigeration system, or both. You’ll usually see a high-temperature range and a low-temperature range to indicate the top and bottom operating temperatures.


The capacity equals the TCU’s heating and cooling power. Some units may only be able to heat, some may only be able to cool, while others are able to heat or cool. The outlined heating and cooling capacities will let you know which functions the TCU can perform and the power (usually in kilowatts) for those functions. For cooling capacities, you’ll want to look at the cooling power at various temperatures as cooling power/capacities decrease as temperatures drop.

Specifications Guidelines for Heating Circulators

Many of JULABO’s heating circulators have an operating range of +20…+200 °C and a heating power of 1kW or 2kW. While these measurements will tell you the basic heating power and temperature range, you’ll want to keep in mind that it takes a lot of time to cool down from high temperatures.

If you want to speed up the cooling process, you’ll want to look for a TCU with “active cooling.” The active cooling feature can help you bring your TCU back down to ambient temperature and get it ready for the next application. If cooling is a concern, we are happy to consult with you to find exactly what you need to streamline your applications. We also have units with 3kW of power and those that can accommodate an additional booster heater to provide even greater heating flexibility for different applications.

Heating circulators list the heating capacity across the entire operating range, meaning the heating power will be the same at +60°C as at +160°C.  Let’s take a look at some general specification reading for heating-only circulators:

  • 115V: 1kW heater – this means that a 115-volt unit will provide 1kW of heating power across the temperature range
  • 208-230V/20A: 1.6 – 2kW or 2.5 – 3kW heaters; this specification shows the range of heating capacity based on the power voltage.
  • 208-230V/3-phase power requirement: >3kW heating capacity; this reading indicates that the unit requires 3-phase power. With the boost in voltage comes a boost in heating capacity.

Here’s another important tip when considering heating circulator specifications. If you have a high-temperature set point, look for a heating circulator with a range and capability greater than the set point. For example, if you have an application requiring 150 °C, then a heating circulator with an upper limit greater than 150 °C will work best for the application.

Specification Guidelines for Refrigerated Circulators

Chillers can show a broad operating range such as -25…+40 °C. Given that the unit has a capability above room temperature might lead one to believe that it can ‘heat’. However, you’ll want to pay close attention to the specifications, as a TCU will list heating power separately if it has an integrated heater. In the case of JULABO chillers, they can use the refrigerant hot-gas bypass to achieve set points above room temperature. This will not be listed as “heating capacity,” as it’s not effectively the same function.

When it comes to refrigerated chillers, it’s always good to remember that heating is easy, and cooling is difficult. Remember that the heating capacity remains the same across the entire unit operating range. However, for refrigeration, the effective cooling power drops off at lower temperatures.

For TCUs with refrigeration, the specifications will state the cooling capacities at different temperatures across the operating range. JULABO units list the main cooling power specification at 20 °C according to DIN 12876 standards.

Example: the FL20006 recirculating chiller has an operating range of -25…+40 °C. This unit has no integrated heater, therefore, no heating capacity specification. The cooling capacity values with ethanol as the heat transfer fluid appear as such:

°C 20 10 0 -10 -20
Capacity kW 20 15 10 7 3

Refrigerated/Heating Circulators

TCUs with integrated heating and cooling capabilities will list the heating and cooling capacities of the unit separately. Remember – heating power remains constant across the unit operating range. As an example, here are the specifications for the PRESTO A45t with an operating range of -45°C to +250 °C.

Heating capacity at 230V/3PPE/60Hz: 10kW

Cooling Capacity:

°C 200 20 0 -10 -20 -30 -40
Capacity kW 3.4 3.5 3.1 2.5 1.8 0.7 0.2


TCU capabilities vary widely to meet customer demands. While it’s critical to understand temperature ranges, whether your unit can heat, cool, or both, and how much heating and cooling power are available, there are a lot of other factors and specifications to consider. You’ll want to know what type of fluids you can use, the pump capacity flow rate, pump capacity flow pressure, and other specifications. To ensure you get a circulator or temperature control unit that will work for your application, it’s best to consult with a representative directly. By contacting your local JULABO account manager, you’ll be sure that every angle of your application is considered prior to making a product recommendation.

If you’ve heard the saying, “slow as molasses in January,” you already know something about viscosity. To understand viscosity on a basic level, think about water and then think about molasses. Molasses is thick and moves slowly; it’s more viscous than water. Simply put, water has a lower viscosity and flows more easily than molasses due to its lower viscosity. When it comes to bath fluids, understanding viscosity can help you understand how your JULABO temperature control system works and how it will perform.

Viscosity is a measure of a liquid’s resistance to flow, and it’s one of the most important physical properties of thermal bath fluids. Bath fluids that are too viscous strain pumps, components, and mechanisms and interfere with heat transfer and uniformity.

There’s a direct correlation between temperature and your bath fluid’s viscosity. Since your bath fluid will experience a variety of temperatures, the viscosity will change as your application is heated or cooled to your set point. You can remember it this way: viscosity changes with temperature, and viscosity decreases as temperatures increase. The reverse is also true; viscosity increases as temperatures decrease. Therefore, selecting a thermal bath fluid with the proper viscosity for your temperature range and JULABO unit is extremely important.

When pairing thermal bath fluids with JULABO units, we recommend low-viscosity fluids to optimize flow and your unit’s performance. You can see the viscosity grades of our fluids in the product data sheets. We have carefully paired specific bath fluids with specific JULABO temperature control units, circulators, and systems to ensure the safe and reliable operation of your application.

If you’re wondering which bath fluid to use in your JULABO, we have created a guide to help. You can download our Bath Fluids Explained chart to find the proper fluid for your unit. Can’t find your manual? Don’t worry; download our JULABO App to access our manuals quickly. Download it for Google Play or Apple. If you need personal assistance, contact your account manager, and they’ll be glad to ensure you have the correct bath fluid with the appropriate viscosity to keep your applications flowing.

What are Immersion Circulators?

Immersion coolers are used in laboratories to provide an alternative cooling method for small applications. The immersion circulator’s refrigeration system cools a metal probe placed in a bath or tank containing a liquid. The immersion cooler provides superior cooling compared to water, water ice, or dry ice.

Are Immersion Coolers Better than Tap Water, Ice Water & Dry Ice?

Standard methods of cooling small applications in the laboratory include tap water, ice water, or dry ice. These cooling processes are readily available in most laboratories and often cited in scientific literature. However, if we look closely at these cooling options, they present some deficiencies.

  • Using Tap Water to Cool a Laboratory Application leads to problems

When it comes to tap water, you can’t control the temperature of the water, which can fluctuate throughout the year, depending on the seasonal climate. Pressure and flow rates fluctuate daily based on area or facility demand. Single-pass water use in applications wastes a valuable resource, and many municipalities/facilities restrict or prohibit single-pass water usage altogether. The continuous use of water as a cooling method also increases operational costs in the form of water and sewage rate increases. 

  • The trouble with Using Ice Water to Cool a Laboratory Application

The combination of water, ice, and salt enable cooling to 0 °C or -17 °C. If you need to go lower than -17 °C, you’ll be unable to accomplish this. In addition, this is a labor-intensive process where you’ll have to constantly replenish the ice and check the water levels as the ice melts. Plus, it’s not the most economical or ecological option due to the dependency on water. 

  • Setbacks to Cooling with Dry Ice

While dry ice may expand your temperature range, it’s not without some significant setbacks. You can achieve various cold temperatures with different solvents (e.g., -77 °C with acetone, -41 °C with acetonitrile). However, the operator must keep adding dry ice during the unit operation while following specific safety handling procedures. In addition, dry ice pricing has increased dramatically over the past few years with regular supply shortages. The solvents used can also require hazardous waste disposal, which also adds cost.

What are the benefits of cooling with an Immersion Cooler?

Cooling with an immersion cooler provides greater control over temperature, cuts down on labor and operating costs over time, and allows operators to streamline operations. 

How an Immersion Cooler Works

With immersion coolers, the cooling probe’s lowest temperature range dictates product classification. The JULABO models FT200 (-20 °C), FT400 (-40 °C) and FT900 (-90 °C) work by placing the probe in the application and turning on the power. Based on the external heat load, the unit will attempt to go as cold as possible.

More sophisticated models add an external Pt100 sensor with set point control and display. The FT402, FT902, and FT903 models have set point capability. By placing the Pt100 sensor in the application with the cooling probe, the operator can input the desired set point. The systems will regulate to the set point if the external load does not exceed the cooling power at the desired temperature.

Immersion Cooler Uses & Product Recommendations

Immersion coolers replace dry ice in the laboratory. By placing a low temperature immersion probe (such as the FT900, FT902 or FT903) in a device with a solvent such as acetone or ethanol) operators can cool without dry ice. Applications include small-scale reactions (1 – 100 mL), benchtop rotary evaporator condensers, Dewars, and vacuum traps. Intermediate (warmer) temperatures can use immersion temperatures like the FT200, FT400, or FT402.

Example of FT402 cooling a reactor

Applications requiring sub-ambient temperatures (e.g., 10 °C) with open bath heating circulators can be achieved by placing an immersion cooler probe in the bath tank. The immersion probe will cool the bath contents, and the heating circulator will maintain the set point.

Example of an FT400 counter-cooling an open bath heating circulator

Sizing and Insulation Requirements for an Immersion Cooler

When using an immersion cooler to reach very cold temperatures, it’s important to insulate the application thoroughly. Immersion coolers behave like any refrigerated system in that the cooling capacity drops at lower temperatures. Minimizing heat loss with adequate insulation will allow the immersion coolers to achieve a lower temperature.

As mentioned above, immersion coolers have reduced cooling power at low temperatures. Although the FT900/FT902/FT903 can achieve -90 °C, they only have 70W cooling power at -80 °C. Immersion coolers will not cool 20L of a solvent to -80 °C as they lack adequate cooling capacity. Remember, when selecting a unit – immersion coolers work best on small volumes/heat loads.

Conclusion and Next Steps:

Immersion probe coolers offer a range of low temperature alternatives to water, ice water, and dry ice. They provide an easy way to cool or counter-cool common laboratory applications. Contact us for help finding the immersion probe cooling system for your application. You can also discuss your cooling application and any issues you may be having directly with our team. Mark Diener, our senior product manager, and application scientist, holds weekly office hours to answer your questions. Contact Mark for any questions you may have about your cooling application. 

JULABO heating circulators and refrigerated/heating circulators come equipped with varying heating capacities dictated by the model and line voltage. Heating power ranges between 1, 2 or 3 kW in these models.

Specifications for the 2kW and 3kW systems relate to 230V power supply. Operating on 208V will result in reduced heating power:

Heating capacity and voltage chart

The unit pump and refrigeration system (cooling capacity, if applicable) will perform to the stated specifications at either voltage.

Kick it up a notch

Does your application require more heating capacity than the standard product provides? Select 230V, 3kW heating capacity JULABO models can accommodate a booster heater (HST) which increases the heating power an additional 6 kW at 230V (4.9 kW at 208V). This additional heating power adds to the 3kW heating power of the heating circulator for 9 kW total.

Models with booster heater options:

Adding the HST booster heater will either require an additional 3-phase power supply or increased amperage to the temperature control unit. The HST does not require installation at a JULABO facility making the heating power upgrade easy at the customer site.

When would you need a boost?

If your application heating capacity requirements change after installation of a temperature control unit then adding a HST becomes a simple fix.

For example, installation of a SL-12 heating circulator on an application providing heat to affect a phase change of a compressed liquid into the gas. The phase change from a liquid to a gas causes cooling which the SL-12 combats to keep the process efficient. If the process throughput increases beyond the 3kW heating capacity of the SL-12 causing the temperature to drop, then adding the HST booster heater to the SL-12 will fix the problem. Since the addition of the HST does not increase the unit footprint, this presents an excellent solution.

Another example: a FP55-SL used to control a 50L glass reactor at low temperatures. The process calls for a fast heat up time which the standard 3kW heating power from the SL cannot meet. By simply adding the HST accessory the FP55-SL can meet the faster heat up requirement.

HST booster heaters deliver a heating capacity boost to heating circulators and refrigerated/heating circulators They provide an easy way to increase heating capability in the laboratory. Contact us for help finding the HST booster heater for your application. You can also discuss your heating application and any issues you may be having directly with our team. Mark Diener, our senior product manager, and application scientist, holds weekly office hours to answer your questions, Mon/Fri 1-3pm ET. Contact Mark for any questions you may have about your heating application.

Although it might sound like something that Spock would ask Scotty on Start Trek, a Stakei outlet has nothing to do with science fiction or spaceships. Stakei (pronounced: stock-eye) ports provide a lockable voltage outlet connection for control of external devices. JULABO units incorporate 2-pin Stakei outlets.

What does a Stakei outlet look like?

JULABO installs Stakei outlets on the back of certain immersion circulator models; FL, FC and SemiChill chiller systems.

Here’s an example from the back of a MAGIO MX:


Some models might have 2 Stakei outlets.

These connect to a Stakei plug of an accessory part:

JULABO Models with Stakei Outlets

Open bath systems with circulator models: HL, SL, MS, MX.

FC chillers: FC600, FC600S, FCW600, FCW600S, FC1600, FC1600S, FC1600T, FCW2500T

FL chillers: FL2503 through FLW20006

SemiChill: All models including combinations for SC2500a, SC2500w, SC5000a, SC5000w and SC1000w

Other: older legacy products and custom units can have Stakei ports.

Stakei Uses

Cooling water activation: A common application with the Stakei port involves heating circulators. All JULABO open bath heating circulators incorporate a cooling coil. If you wish to have your application cool down faster from an elevated temperature; installing a cooling water solenoid valve set on the integrated cooling coil with a water source will accomplish this. Adjusting some settings in the circulator will open the cooling water solenoid when entering a lower temperature set point. See .

Water refill function: The same cooling water solenoid valve set as above can also act as an automatic bath tank refill device. For example, if your SL-12 heating circulator uses water to 70 °C for extended time periods, eventually the water level will drop due to evaporation and potentially triggering a low fluid level warning. With the cooling water valve in refill mode on the circulator and tubing into the bath tank, it will open when the low-level warning (E-40) appears. Once the water level rises, the E-40 message will disappear and the valve will shut. No more worries about running out of water in your heating circulator!

HSP Booster pump integration: Ultra-low refrigerated heating circulator models FP(W)52/55/90/91 requiring higher flow rate and/or pressure can utilize the HSP booster pump. When equipped with the HSP booster pump, the Stakei outlet connection activates the HSP booster pump when the unit operates.

In-Line Solenoid: If your application installation has the circulator lower than the external application you might be concerned about bath fluid siphoning or backflow into the circulator when not operating. All JULABO models mentioned above with Stakei outlets can use an in-line solenoid valve set. The Stakei outlet opens/closes a solenoid valve on the return fluid port which a spring-loaded catch valve installs on the fluid outlet port. This eliminates any fluid backflow when with the pump off. Note: the solenoid valves have temperature and bath fluid limitations.

Conclusion and Next Steps

Stakei ports extend the operational capability of your JULABO unit with accessory solenoid valves or booster pump. If you’re interested in discussing how a Stakei outlet accessory can benefit your workflow contact your local JULABO account manager or email [email protected].

JULABO products feature an intelligent design that makes them easier to use. Our products include numerous design features that enhance operations, user experiences, and workflows. In a recent video, I highlighted a few of these features, including our various control screens and easy-to-remove front grills that allow you to quickly and efficiently drain fluids and clean condensers.

Product design and customer satisfaction go hand-in-hand, and easy-to-use features significantly affect laboratory applications. JULABO USA provides a broad portfolio of products with innovative bells and whistles, too many to list in one article. These features simplify laboratory work and processes and allow customers to push their science and production. These design details matter and are often one of the reasons people choose JULABO.

JULABO USA’s Product Design Advantages

Let’s take a look at some of our most popular design features:

  1. Ventless, solid-sided equipment allows users to place the JULABO unit next to an application or other equipment. This saves precious space in the lab since you don’t have to worry about leaving clearance space for side vents.
  2. Intuitive, easy-to-use touchscreens, menu prompts, and controllers keep users informed and allow them to adjust and control applications based on real-time data.
  3. Remote control operations allow customers to control temperature applications via a personal computer.
  4. Innovative pumps, refrigeration, and heating components provide greater control over processes, setpoints, heat-up and cool-down times, flow rates, safety parameters, and other vital factors.
  5. Accessible drain spouts allow users to quickly drain fluids without any leaks, spills, or mess.
  6. Magnetic front grills don’t require any tools to remove. These grill covers provide easy access for draining fluids and eliminating dust from condensers.
  7. Integrated Pt100 connections allow users to connect a Pt100 sensor quickly and easily to measure temperatures in an external application.
  8. Band limits protect glass reactors and sensitive applications.
  9. Multi-lingual and password-protected user settings protect data and expand possibilities.
  10. Integrated programmers allow users to save programs and process steps.
  11. Integrated interfaces make it easy to log and export data.
  12. Safety features including low-liquid alarms, temperature cut-offs, and more protect users and processes.
  13. Continuously adjustable and variable pumps provide greater control over applications.
  14. Multiple interface options allow customers to streamline workflows through integrated ports including:  USB, Ethernet, RS232, RS485, Profibus, Stakei integration, analog options, and more.

The list could go on longer, and the design features mentioned above depend on the product and model. Still, every unit is designed with the user’s convenience, comfort, and goals in mind.

The Unique PRESTO Design

The PRESTO temperature control systems are worth mentioning for their unique and innovative design. The PRESTO is often considered the star of our portfolio, and with good reason. Its closed bath design allows customers to do things they can’t do with traditional open-bath systems, including:

  • Operate across a wide range of temperatures without changing the bath fluid
  • Work above the fluid flashpoint at high temperatures
  • Work at low temperature without worrying about ice build-up or moisture condensation
  • Quickly compensate for endothermic & exothermic events
  • Protect glass reactors and sensitive applications without purchasing additional pressure relief valves
  • Control flows with bypass valves and flow meters
  • Eliminate fluid evaporation, odors, off-gassing, and pump leaks

MAGIO Circulator Innovations

In addition, the MAGIO, our latest line of circulators, feature more interface options and the most advanced adjustable pressure/suction pump on the market. The MAGIO pump lets users fine-tune and adjust the pump speed to get the flow and pressure they need. Plus, MAGIO’s advanced, high-resolution touchscreen allows people to choose from three different layouts based on the types of charts, graphs, and information they want to see at-a-glance.

Intelligent Design: One of the Many Reasons People Choose JULABO

When it comes to circulators, water baths, chillers, and temperature control systems, intelligent product design provides a distinct advantage. How JULABO designs its products affects our customer’s success. Intelligent design is one of the reasons why customers continue to choose JULABO USA as their provider for liquid temperature control equipment.

In addition to Intelligent Design, we’re also committed to your success in other ways.

Personalized product recommendations ensure users get the best temperature control unit for their application.

Intelligent design influences how our products perform and how a user can integrate them into their daily work.

Lower cost of ownership helps the customer protect their temperature control investment and keep their JULABO running for as long as possible with as little downtime as possible.

Our in-depth technical support provides access to knowledgeable service and support teams to help you operate your systems and efficiently and keep them running in top form.

Our commitment to science and industry drives us to share the temperature information scientists and engineers need to solve problems and innovate for the good of society.

Conclusion and Next Steps

If you’re a laboratory scientist or engineer looking for the best equipment to heat or cool an internal or external application, we’d love to help. Our team will ensure you get the best temperature control unit for your application, including a product with all the design features, bells, and whistles you need to conveniently and comfortably streamline your workflow. To start a conversation, contact your JULABO account manager, they’ll be happy to help you.

JULABO USA’s CORIO CD and CP circulators may seem similar, but some essential differences exist. Before delving into the differences, let’s first look into their similarities.

CORIO CD and CP Similarities

The CORIO CD and CP are immersion heating circulators with an adjustable clamp for use with laboratory containers or bath tanks ranging up to 50 liters in volume. The CP and CD circulators offer 1kW heating power in 115V and 2kW heating power in 230V. When paired with BCx bath tanks in (x = ) 4, 6, 12, and 26L, they perform as heating circulators for internal or external applications.

Adding refrigeration units to the CD and CP creates a refrigerated/heating circulator option ranging from 200W to 1kW cooling power for internal or external applications.

The CORIO CD and CP include USB-B ports for external communication, a USB-A port for data-logging via a USB memory stick, and a manually adjustable flow diverter valve. This valve allows the user to alter the internal or external flow ratio. Each circulator functions with M16x1 male pump connections for fluid flow to external applications.

CORIO CD and CP Differences

Temperature Ranges

The CORIO CD provides an upper operating temperature of 150 °C, while the CORIO CP goes up to 200 °C. Temperature stability with the CD = ±0.03 °C with the CP providing ±0.02 °C.


The CORIO CD offers 1-point calibration. The CORIO CP incorporates 1, 2, or 3-point calibration capability for tighter temperature control.


The CORIO CD has a single-speed pump with a maximum flow rate of 16 liters a minute and pressure of 5 PSI. The CORIO CP has a stronger, adjustable speed pump providing 8 to 27 liters per minute flow and pressure from 1.5 to 10.2 PSI.

I/O (Input/Output) Operations

The CORIO CP incorporates an RS232 communication port for external control using a null modem RS232 cable. The CORIO CD only has a USB communication port.

Refrigeration Combinations

With refrigeration systems, the CORIO CD has a maximum range of -40…+150 °C with the CD-1000F unit and 130W cooling power at -40 °C. The CORIO CP-1000F has an operating range of -50…+200 °C with 110W at -40 °C. The lower cooling power with the CP-1000F relates to the stronger pump.

Appearances: How to Tell the CORIO CP and CD Apart

On the front, both units appear identical at first glance, but upon careful inspection, the CORIO CP includes a MENU button on the user interface.

The back of the units are also slightly different, as the CORIO CP has a visible RS232 port.


The CORIO CD and CP provide liquid temperature control solutions in heating and refrigerated/heating combinations with a slight twist. For basic applications requiring -40…+150 °C, the CORIO CD product combinations provide excellent value. The CORIO CP products offer extra sophistication with more pumping power and additional I/O capabilities from -50…+200 °C.  

Finding A CORIO Circulator for your Application

Learn more about the CORIO CD models and the CORIO CP models and shop for the model that fits your needs on our website. If you need help determining which CORIO circulator is best for your application, contact us; we’ll be happy to help. You can also discuss your cooling application and needs directly with our team. Mark Diener, our senior product manager and application scientist, holds weekly office hours to answer your questions. Contact Mark for any questions you may have about your cooling application.